Process of global combat desertification and its countermeasures

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Combat Desertification has become a worldwide problem, and stopping the expansion of desert and greening desert has become the primary problem for mankind to fight for living environment and expand living space in the 21st century. Combat desertification, known as “cancer of the earth”, is a hot and difficult issue in the field of global ecology. In 1992, the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development adopted Agenda 21, which listed Combat Desertification as a priority area for action by the international community. This embodies the new thinking of sustainable development of human society today. The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification, signed in 1994, is the first international convention on environment and development and an important milestone in the implementation of Agenda 21 by the international community. It marks that the international community has fully recognized the importance of combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought in the implementation of sustainable development strategies.

There are three types of successful models for combating desertification. Type one is a government-led model and the typical countries are the United States, Canada, Germany and Romania; Type two is technology-oriented, typical countries are Israel, the United Arab Emirates and India; Type three is industry-led, typical countries are Australia, Egypt and Iran.

Take the United States as an example. The United States government has played a leading role in the process of Combat Desertification, with macro-control of production and land protection. The federal government has issued a series of policies and decrees, and the states have also formulated operational land development and desert control laws, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority Act of 1933, and the Regional Redevelopment Act of 1961. These laws not only improved the legal system of the United States, but more importantly, provided a strong policy and legal guarantee for the smooth implementation of the western development and desert control strategy of the United States. At the same time, the US government also established the Soil Conservation Bureau to encourage states to implement soil conservation measures, and finally achieved satisfactory results. 

Mankind has only one home on earth; Combat Desertification is a great cause related to human development. IIE will work with other countries in the world to continue to adhere to green and low-carbon development, seek global ecological civilization construction, jointly promote global environmental governance, and continue to make new contributions to the building of a clean and beautiful world.